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东游记,双语阅览|埃塞俄比亚新社会保证方案托底贫困人口,上海黄金交易所

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TSIDE ZEWIDE has lived in the shadow of the national palace in Addis Ababa for more than 50 years. Since her husband died four years ago the 73-year-old has cared for three orphans, the grandchildren of her late sister, alone in a rundown government-owned shack. She has no pension and, until recently, had no income. “I relied on the kindness of my neighbours,” she sighs.

50多年来,赛德·祖德一向住在首都亚的斯亚贝巴皇家宫廷邻近。自老公在四年前逝世后,这位73岁的白叟独自一人照料已故妹妹留下的三个孤古孤立的孙儿,住的是政府的寒酸棚户区。祖德一向没有养老金,也仅仅近来才有一些收入。“我一向靠着我仁慈的街坊救助。” 她叹声说道。

Last year Mrs Zewide’s fortunes changed. She and some 80 of her neighbours rise at dawn to sweep the streets of the Ethiopian capital for three hours a day. For this she is paid 1,200 Ethiopian birr ($44) a month, a fifth of which she is required to save. “It’s good for me psychologically,” she says. “It keeps me busy, and now at least I can tell people I have a job.” Her teammates nod in agreement.

上一年,祖德的命运发生了改变。她与80多位街坊每天拂晓时分便起来打扫大街,一天三小时。从此,祖德每月都有1,200埃塞俄比亚比尔(44美元)的收入,其间五分之一需求存到银行账户中。“这让我的精力比曾经更好了,”她说。“有了这份作业,我每天都能够忙起来,至少我能够通知他人我有作业了。” 她的打扫队友们也纷繁允许赞同。

They are participants in Ethiopia’s Urban Productive Safety Net Project, which was launched in 2017 and is among the largest social programmes in sub-Saharan Africa (outside South Africa) designed specifically for urban areas. About 400,000 poor Ethiopians in 11 cities are already enrolled. The government hopes it will eventually help 4.7m people in almost 1,000 towns. Beneficiaries are selected by a neighbourhood committee based on how poor and vulnerable they are. In addition to the paid work, they also receive training. Those who want to start their own businesses are given grants.

他们参与的是埃塞俄比亚城市出产安全保证方案。该项目于2017年发动,专门为撒哈拉以南非洲(除南非外)的城市,是最大的社会项目之一。项目已招募了困埃塞俄比亚11个城市约40万贫穷人员。该国政府期望这一项目能够终究协助近1,000个乡镇的470万人。获益的人是由社区委员会根据贫穷和软弱程度选出来的。除了作业有酬劳,他们还能承受训练。想创业的人还能取得赞助。

Safety-nets, in one form or another, have proliferated across Africa in recent years. Spending on them in sub-Saharan Africa now amounts to about 1.5% of GDP (see chart). In Tanzania 10% of the population is covered by its safety-net (at a cost of just 0.3% of GDP). Most schemes in Africa are focused on rural people and many are temporary, often implemented by donors in response to natural disasters or conflict. Few a designed to help households manage the private misfortunes—such as illness or the death of a family member—that can tip them into destitution. They also do a poor job of reducing the chronic unemployment that has taken root in many African cities.

近些年来,非洲有各种相似安全保证方案的呈现。撒哈拉以南非洲区域在安全保证方案上的开销约占GDP的1.5%(见图表)。在坦桑尼亚,有10%的人口能够享有安全保证(仅占GDP的0.3%)。非洲区域的大多数方案都侧重于乡村人口,许多方案是临时性的,一般由捐助者自行施行,首要为应对自然灾害或抵触对立。很少有专门用于协助遭受不幸家庭的方案项目——比方家中或人患病或逝世——这些都有或许使得整个家庭致穷。除此之外,在下降长时间失业率方面也有缺乏,长时间失业问题成为许多非洲城市的“痼疾”。

Ethiopia’s programme is a step towards building a national social-security system that will, in time, replace a hotch-potch of small ones. It builds on Ethiopia’s flagship rural safety-net, which is the largest of its kind on the continent and covers some 10m poor people in the countryside (out of a total population of about 102m). The government has committed $150m to fund the new scheme and the World Bank has stumped up the remaining $300m needed for the first five years. Ethiopia hopes that within ten years it will no longer need help financing the programme.

埃塞俄比亚的这项方案将会是朝着树立国家社会保证体系行进的一步,以在恰当时间里替代很多乱七八糟的小规模安全保证项目。此项方案根据的埃塞俄比亚首要的乡村安全保证——非洲大陆上掩盖规模最广的安全保证体系,掩盖约1000万的乡村贫穷人口(总人口约1.02亿)。埃塞俄比亚政府许诺投入1.5亿美元赞助这项新方案,世界银行也已拨出别的所需的3亿美元用于前五年的建造。埃塞俄比亚期望该项目能十年之内不再需求任何其他赞助。

For years the Ethiopian government flinched at terms like “social protection”. Donors are hopeful that it now considers the safety-net a long-term policy rather than “a sticking plaster that won’t be necessary once industrialisation takes off”, says Tom Lavers of Manchester University. But, he notes, antipathy towards Western-style welfarism remains strong. The government flatly rejected the idea of no-strings cash handouts, which are popular among donors and development economists, partly because they are cheap to administer. “People can’t expect a free lunch,” says Belynshe Regassa, the head of Mrs Zewide’s local committee.

多年来,埃塞俄比亚政府一向不敢直面“社会保证”问题。曼彻斯特大学的汤姆·拉弗斯标明,捐助者现在满怀等待,由于埃塞俄比亚政府将安全保证方案作为一项长时间方针在考虑,而不再像曾经那样,以为“一旦国家工业化腾飞开展,社保方案便再无用途”。可是,他也指出,埃塞俄比亚政府决然不会承受在国家施行直接的现金捐助的主意,这一般是捐赠者和经济学家爱干的事儿,而这些资金不需求什么办理本钱。“不能让所有人都眼巴巴地盼望免费的午饭,”首都的委员会主席贝利斯·雷格萨(Belynshe Regassa)这样说道。

Ethiopia’s rural scheme is widely regarded as a success. It has reduced rural poverty and helped the poor buy food during a severe drought in 2016 that might have led to famine. But towns and cities are a different challenge altogether. It can be hard to know which people are most in need. Applicants must have lived in the district for at least six months to be eligible, so transient urban folk may slip through the safety-net. Mrs Regassa says locals complained to her when they were not selected by the committee. Critics say supporters of the ruling party are more likely to get picked.

埃塞俄比亚的乡村安保方案取得广泛认可,有助于减少乡村贫穷人口,让2016年受几回严重干旱里公民买到食物,免受饥馑之苦。不过,乡镇和市区区域的问题天壤之别。政府很难确认哪些人是最需求协助的。申请人必须在该区域寓居至少六个月才有资历取得协助,因而那些时间短逗留的城市居民或许就无法归入安保方案傍边。雷格萨以为,一些没有被委员会选中的当地人会向她不断诉苦。批判人士也说,只要是当时执政党的拥护者才更有或许被选中。

Despite such gripes, Ethiopia’s experience suggests that even poor countries can start extending safety-nets. But if Ethiopia is to achieve its goal of weaning the scheme off donor support, it may have to make cuts to wasteful subsidies, which would be politically painful.

虽然有样的诉苦,不得不说,埃塞俄比亚的经历标明,即使是贫穷国家也能够不断扩大安全保证方案。可是,若埃塞俄比亚想在脱离捐赠者协助和支撑的情况下完成安全保证方案,就不得不减少一些无用的补助,这或许会在政治上形成晦气影响。

The biggest challenge lies in the fact that even the broadest safety-nets in Africa only cover a small portion of the poor. Mrs Regassa, for example, is not eligible for help because she owns her own house. But as a single mother with four children she hopes the programme will one day include her, too.

这其间最大的应战在于,在非洲区域,即使是掩盖规模最广的安全保证方案也只能协助到很一小部分的贫穷人口。例如,雷加萨就没有资历取得协助,由于她具有自己的房子。但作为有四个孩子要抚育的独身妈妈,她期望往后能够有时机享受到安全保证方案。

编译:杨雅婷

修改:翻吧君

来历:经济学人(2018.05.31)

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